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Tutanchamun - Das Geheimnis des Pharao [Doku]

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30 Minuten aus: Tutanchamun und seine Schätze für die Ewigkeit Tutanchamun AuГџehen

Tutankhamun took the throne at eight or nine years of age under the unprecedented viziership of his eventual successor, Ay , to whom he may have been related.

He married his half sister Ankhesenamun. During their marriage they lost two daughters , one at 5—6 months of pregnancy and the other shortly after birth at full-term.

There are Egyptologists [ who? Tutankhamun restored the Ancient Egyptian religion after its dissolution by his father, enriched and endowed the priestly orders of two important cults and began restoring old monuments damaged during the previous Amarna period.

He moved his father's remains to the Valley of the Kings as well as moving the capitol from Akhetaten to Thebes. Tutankhamun was physically disabled with a deformity of his left foot along with bone necrosis that required the use of a cane, several of which were found in his tomb as well as body armor and bows, having been trained in archery.

He had other health issues including scoliosis and had contracted several strains of malaria. The discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb , in excavations funded by Lord Carnarvon , [9] received worldwide press coverage.

With over 5, artifacts, it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt , for which Tutankhamun's mask , now in the Egyptian Museum , remains a popular symbol.

The deaths of a few involved in the discovery of Tutankhamun's mummy have been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs.

He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as " King Tut ".

Some of his treasure has traveled worldwide with unprecedented response. The exhibits drew in millions of visitors. There were no international exhibitions again until — This exhibit featured Tutankhamun's predecessors from the 18th dynasty, including Hatshepsut and Akhenaten, but did not include the golden death mask.

The treasures — tour began in Los Angeles and will end in at the new Grand Egyptian Museum in Cairo, which, for the first time, will be displaying the full Tutankhamun collection, gathered from all of Egypt's museums and storerooms.

Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten originally named Amenhotep IV [10] who is believed to be the mummy found in tomb KV His wet nurse was a woman called Maia , known from her tomb at Saqqara.

While some suggestions have been made that Tutankhamun's mother was Meketaten , the second daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti based on a relief from the Royal Tomb at Amarna , [a] given that she was about 10 years old at the time of her death, this has been deemed unlikely.

In genetic analysis was carried out on the mummified remains of Tutankhamun and others thought or known to be New Kingdom royalty by a team from University of Cairo.

The results indicated that his father was the KV55 mummy, identified as Akhenaten , and that his mother was the KV35 Younger Lady , who was found to be a full sister of her husband.

In this interpretation of the DNA results the genetic closeness is not due to a brother-sister pairing but the result of three generations of first cousin marriage, making Nefertiti a first cousin of Akhenaten.

When Tutankhamun became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun.

KV21A has been suggested as the mother of the foetuses but the data is not statistically significant enough to allow her to be securely identified as Ankhesenamun.

Tutankhamun was between eight and nine years of age when he ascended the throne and became Pharaoh , [30] taking the throne name Nebkheperure.

The principal vizier for Upper Egypt was Usermontju. Another figure named Pentju was also vizier but it is unclear of which lands.

It is not entirely known if Ay, Tutankhamun's successor, actually held this position. A gold foil fragment from KV58 seems to indicate, but not certainly, that Ay was referred to as a Priest of Maat along with an epithet of "vizier, doer of maat.

It might be that Ay used the title of vizier in an unprecedented manner. An Egyptian priest named Manetho wrote a comprehensive history of ancient Egypt where he refers to a king named Orus who ruled for 36 years and had a daughter named Acencheres who reigned twelve years and her brother Rathotis who ruled for only nine years.

Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary cults and associated temples. Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his lifetime.

Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and Faras in Nubia. The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult.

In order for the pharaoh, who held divine office, to be linked to the people and the gods, special epithets were created for them at their accession to the throne.

The ancient Egyptian titulary also served to demonstrate one's qualities and link them to the terrestrial realm.

The five names were developed over the centuries beginning with the Horus Name. English Egyptologist Battiscombe Gunn believed that the older interpretation did not fit with Akhenaten's theology.

Gunn believed that such an name would have been blasphemous. He saw tut as a verb and not a noun and gave his translation in as The-life-of-Aten-is-pleasing.

Professor Gerhard Fecht also believed the word tut was a verb. He noted that Akhenaten used tit as a word for 'image', not tut.

Using Aten as the subject, Fecht's full translation was "One-perfect-of-life-is-Aten". The Hermopolis Block two carved block fragments discovered in Ashmunein has a unique spelling of the first nomen written as Tutankhuaten ; it uses ankh as a verb, which does support the older translation of Living-image-of-Aten.

Once crowned and after "Taking council" with the god Amun, Tutankhamun made several endowments that enriched and added to the priestly numbers of the cults of Amun and Ptah.

He commissioned new statues of the deities from the best metals and stone and had new processional barques made of the finest cedar from Lebanon and had them embellished with gold and silver.

The priests and all of the attending dancers, singers and attendants had their positions restored and a decree of royal protection granted to insure their future stability.

Tutankhamun's second year as pharaoh began the return to the old Egyptian order. Both he and his queen removed 'Aten' from their names, replacing it with Amun and moved the capital from Akhetaten to Thebes.

He renounced the god Aten, relegating it to obscurity and returned Egyptian religion to its polytheistic form.

His first act as a pharaoh was to remove his father's mummy from his tomb at Akhetaten and rebury it in the Valley of the Kings.

This helped strengthen his reign. Tutankhamun rebuilt the stelae, shrines and buildings at Karnak. He added works to Luxor as well as beginning the restoration of other temples throughout Egypt that were pillaged by Akhenaten.

The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni.

Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes.

His tomb contained body armor, folding stools appropriate for military campaigns, and bows, and he was trained in archery. Given his age, the king probably had advisers which presumably included Ay who succeeded Tutankhamun and General Horemheb , Ay's possible son in law and successor.

Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.

In his third regnal year Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign. He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy.

The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood.

The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten was abandoned. The sphinxes were originally made for Akhenaten and Nefertiti; they were given new ram heads and small statues of the king.

The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull , Horemakhet , and Opet.

His Restoration Stela erected in front of Karnak temple says:. Their shrines were deserted and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond".

A building called the Temple-of-Nebkheperure-Beloved-of-Amun-Who-Puts-Thebes-in-Order, which may be identical to a building called Temple-of-Nebkheperre-in-Thebes, a possible mortuary temple, used recycled talatat from Akhenaten's east Karnak Aten temples indicating that the dismantling of these temples was already underway.

The sphinx avenue was completed by his successor Ay and the whole was usurped by Horemheb. The Restoration Stele was usurped by Horemheb; pieces of the Temple-of-Nebkheperure-in-Thebes were recycled into Horemheb's own building projects.

In January Tutankhamun's mummy was CT scanned. The results showed that Tutankhamun had a partially cleft hard palate and possibly a mild case of scoliosis.

The team discovered DNA from several strains of the parasite, indicating that he was repeatedly infected with the most severe strain of malaria.

His malaria infections may have caused a fatal immune response in the body or triggered circulatory shock. This injury being the result of modern damage was ruled out based on the ragged edges of the fracture; modern damage features sharp edges.

Embalming substances were present within the fracture indicating that it was associated with an open wound; no signs of healing were present.

There are no surviving records of the circumstances of Tutankhamun's death; it has been the subject of considerable debate and major studies.

Murder by a blow to the head was theorised as a result of the x-ray which showed two bone fragments inside the skull. The inter-cranial bone fragments were determined to be the result of the modern unwrapping of the mummy as they are loose and not adherent to the embalming resin.

The absence of both the collar and chest wall was noted in the x-ray [75] and further confirmed by the CT scan. Three separate teams — Egyptian, French, and American — worked separately to approximate the face of the boy king.

While the Egyptian and French teams knew their subject was Tutankhamun, the American team worked blind. All teams produced very similar results, but it was that of the French team that was ultimately cast in silicone.

Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was unusually small considering his status. His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, causing his mummy to be buried in a tomb intended for someone else.

This would preserve the observance of the customary 70 days between death and burial. The location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by debris from subsequent tombs, and workers' houses were built over the tomb entrance.

The concession rights for excavating the Valley of the Kings was held by Theodore Davis from until In that time he had unearthed ten tombs including the nearly intact but non-royal tomb of Queen Tiye's parents, Yuya and Tjuyu.

As he continued working there in the later years, he uncovered nothing of major significance. He believed this to be the pharaoh's lost tomb and published his findings as such with the line; "I fear the Valley of the Tombs is exhausted".

The Earl of Carnarvon and Carter had hoped this would lead to their gaining the concession when Davis gave it up but had to be satisfied with excavations in different parts of the Theban necropolis for seven more years.

After a systematic search, beginning in , Carter discovered the actual tomb of Tutankhamun KV62 in November A day and time were selected to unseal the tomb with about twenty appointed witnesses that included Lord Carnarvon, several Egyptian officials, museum representatives and the staff of the Government Press Bureau.

On 17 February at just after two o'clock, the seal was broken. There were 5, items found in the tomb, including a solid gold coffin, face mask , thrones, archery bows, trumpets , a lotus chalice , food, wine, sandals, and fresh linen underwear.

Howard Carter took 10 years to catalog the items. On 4 November , 85 years to the day after Carter's discovery, Tutankhamun's mummy was placed on display in his underground tomb at Luxor , when the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass box.

The case was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb.

While the closure was originally planned for five years to restore the walls affected by humidity, the Egyptian revolution set the project back.

The tomb re-opened in February For many years, rumors of a " curse of the pharaohs " probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery [97] persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb.

The most prominent was George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon , who died on 5 April , five months after the discovery of the first step leading down to the tomb on 4 November The cause of Carnarvon's death was pneumonia supervening on [facial] erysipelas a streptococcal infection of the skin and underlying soft tissue.

His doctor recommended a warmer climate so in the Carnarvons traveled to Egypt where the Earl became interested in Egyptology. A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years; [] Howard Carter died of lymphoma in at the age of Kinnaman who died in , 39 years after the event.

Tutankhamun's fame is primarily the result of his well-preserved tomb and the global exhibitions of his associated artifacts.

As Jon Manchip White writes, in his foreword to the edition of Carter's The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun , "The pharaoh who in life was one of the least esteemed of Egypt's Pharaohs has become in death the most renowned".

The discoveries in the tomb were prominent news in the s. Tutankhamen came to be called by a modern neologism , "King Tut".

President Herbert Hoover. Tutankhamun's artifacts have traveled the world with unprecedented visitorship. With the ending of that conflict, the Louvre Museum in Paris was quickly able to arrange an exhibition of Tutankhamun's treasures through Christiane Desroches Noblecourt.

The French exhibit drew 1. Noblecourt had also convinced the Egyptian Minister of Culture to allow British photographer George Rainbird to re-photograph the collection in color.

The new color photos as well as the Louvre exhibition began a Tutankhamun revival. In the Tutankhamun exhibit traveled to Tokyo, Japan where it garnered more visitors than the future New York exhibit in The exhibit was held at the Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art with almost 1.

The blockbuster attraction exceeded all other exhibitions of Tutankhamun's treasures for the next 60 years.

This exhibition was first shown in London at the British Museum from 30 March until 30 September More than 1. The Metropolitan Museum of Art organized the U.

More than eight million attended. In , Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, in partnership with Arts and Exhibitions International and the National Geographic Society, launched a tour of Tutankhamun treasures and other 18th Dynasty funerary objects, this time called Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs.

It featured the same exhibits as Tutankhamen: The Golden Hereafter in a slightly different format. It was expected to draw more than three million people but exceeded that with almost four million people attending just the first four tour stops.

The exhibition visited Australia for the first time, opening at the Melbourne Museum for its only Australian stop before Egypt's treasures returned to Cairo in December The exhibition included 80 exhibits from the reigns of Tutankhamun's immediate predecessors in the 18th dynasty, such as Hatshepsut , whose trade policies greatly increased the wealth of that dynasty and enabled the lavish wealth of Tutankhamun's burial artifacts, as well as 50 from Tutankhamun's tomb.

The exhibition did not include the gold mask that was a feature of the — tour, as the Egyptian government has decided that damage which occurred to previous artifacts on tours precludes this one from joining them.

In it was announced that the largest collection of Tutankhamun artifacts, amounting to forty percent of the entire collection, would be leaving Egypt again in for an international tour entitled; "King Tut: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh".

The exhibit featured one hundred and fifty gold coins, along with various pieces of jewelry, sculpture and carvings, as well as the renowned gold mask of Tutankhamun.

Promotion of the exhibit filled the streets of Paris with posters of the event. The full international tour ends with the opening of the new Grand Egyptian Museum in Cairo where the treasures will be permanently housed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tutenkhamun. For other uses, see King Tut disambiguation. The boy king's golden mask.

Royal titulary. Main article: Tutankhamun's mummy. Main article: KV Further information: Exhibitions of artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Tutankhamun ascending family history. The probability that the man interred in KV55 is the father of Tutankhamun was equally as great.

Lockwood Press. In Osing, J. University College London. Retrieved 5 August Leprohon 30 April SBL Press.

Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 24 September American Journal of Roentgenology. Retrieved 27 August National Geographic. Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 23 September In his third year of his reign, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign.

He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood.

The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned. In Howard Carter found Tutankhamun's tomb.

Tutankhamen is believed to carry a curse. People who saw the coffin later died. Many believe this but it is not true as the archeologists who have visited his tomb died from natural causes.

Recent studies of his body using CT scans and DNA tests show that he had two children, but they died very young. Scientists now believe he died from a broken leg, made more complicated by bone disease and malaria.

It is quite certain that he was infected by several strains of malaria, and very likely that he had some genetic defects caused by inbreeding.

His parents were brother and sister. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Journal of the American Medical Association. Retrieved 21 October Harvard Gazette.

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